Introduction to the Eye

INTRODUCTION TO THE EYE

The eyes are wonderful sensory organs. They help people learn about the world in which they live. Eyes see all sorts of things - big or small, near or far, smooth or textured, colors and dimensions. The eyes have many parts - all of which must function in order to see properly.

INSIDE THE EYE

In addition to the many sections of the eyeball itself, muscles are attached to the outer walls of the eyeball. The eye muscles are attached to the eyes in order that we can move our eyes. The interactive diagram shows these main parts. If anything goes wrong, such as from diabetic eye disease, an individual might not be able to see as well.

A COMPLETE PICTURE

Visual information from the retina travels from the eye to the brain via the optic nerve. Because eyes see from slightly different positions, the brain must mix the two images it receives to get a complete picture.

What we think of as seeing is the result of a series of events that occur between the eye, the brain, and the outside world. Light reflected from an object passes through the cornea of the eye, moves through the lens which focuses it, and then reaches the retina at the very back where it meets with a thin layer of color-sensitive cells called the rods and cones. Because the light criss-crosses while going through the cornea, the retina "sees" the image upside down. The brain then "reads" the image right-side up.

 

GLOSSARY

Aqueous Humor: a clear, watery fluid that fills the front part of the eye between the cornea, lens and iris.

Choroid: the middle layer of the eyeball which contains veins and arteries that furnish nourishment to the eye, especially the retina.

Conjunctiva: a mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the front part of the eyeball.

Cornea: the transparent outer portion of the eyeball that transmits light to the retina.

Fovea: A tiny spot located in the macula that is the area of clearest vision on the retina.

Iris: the colored, circular part of the eye in front of the lens. It controls the size of the pupil.

Lens: the transparent disc in the middle of the eye behind the pupil that brings rays of light into focus on the retina.

Macula: is a small area of the retina located near the optic nerve at the back of the eye. It is responsible for our central, most acute vision.

Optic Nerve: the important nerve that carries messages from the retina to the brain.

Pupil: the circular opening at the center of the iris that controls the amount of light into the eye.

Retina: the inner layer of the eye containing light-sensitive cells that connect with the brain through the optic nerve. It also contains retinal blood vessels which feed the retina and which can be affected by diabetes.

Sclera: the white part of the eye that is a tough coating which, along with the cornea, forms the external protective coat of the eye.

Vitreous Body: a colorless mass of soft, gelatin-like material that fills the eyeball behind the lens.

The Best Proven Technologies

Ophthalmology has advanced tremendously in the last few years. We are committed to remaining on the leading edge of these advancements. 

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How often should I visit my ophthalmologist?

​If you have a history of eye disease, we recommend making regular appointments and following up as your ophthalmologist advises. Call now for more information or to schedule an appointment.

​Can I bring a friend with me to my ophthalmologist appointment?

​You are always welcome to bring a friend or family member with you to your appointments.  An extra set of ears is always helpful so you don’t forget any important information your ophthalmologist goes over with you during your appointment. 

 

How do I know if I should schedule an ophthalmologist appointment?

​If you are having eye discomfort or trouble with your vision, schedule an appointment with your ophthalmologist. Health conditions, like high blood pressure or diabetes, increase your risk for certain diseases. If you have questions or think you might need to see an ophthalmologist, call for more information.

 

Do your ophthalmologists have tips on how I can protect my eyes?

 

​Don’t forget to wear protective eyewear during activities like mowing the grass, doing construction work, or playing sports.  If you wear contacts, take steps to prevent eye infections. Wash your hands before handling your contacts or touching your eyes, and be sure to replace them regularly.

 

When should I arrive at my ophthalmologist appointment?

 

​We ask that you arrive at your eye appointment fifteen minutes early. That gives you time to fill out any necessary paperwork before your appointment with your doctor. 

 

What should I bring for my ophthalmologist appointment?

 

​You will need to bring your insurance information. If you have a referral from your primary care physician, please have that with you if you haven’t already sent it to us. And lastly, bring a list of all medications you are taking.

 

Can your ophthalmologists perform LASIK? What can I expect?

 

​One of our most popular procedures at Spectrum Eye Institute is LASIK surgery. An outpatient procedure, LASIK surgery corrects the vision of patients who are nearsighted, farsighted or have astigmatism. Call now for more information or to see if LASIK might be right for you. 

 

Does your ophthalmologist office offer cosmetic services?

 

​Though ophthalmologists are known for medically necessary services, we also offer cosmetic procedures and services to help you look and feel your best. We offer Botox Cosmetic treatments that smooth deep wrinkles and crows’ feet around your eyes. Call our offices for more information and to schedule a consultation.